Date: Fri, 10 May 1996 20:11:55 -0400
Subject: Hemp bibliography
Hemp Bibliography

Compiled by:
Eric Skidmore
P.O. Box 56
Chugiak, AK 99567

Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1913, Washington,
Government Printing Office, 1914.  Lyster H. Dewey, "Hemp"  pp. 283-346. 
Illustrated.  One of the most thorough studies on the commercial,
agricultural, industrial uses of hemp, Cannabis sativa L., ever written. 
Covers soil type, history, world production in 1913, development of better
varieties, uses of hemp for fiber, seed, and as a rotation crop easy on the
soil and resistant to pests and as a method to control weeds.  Explains the
agronomy of hemp in many countries of the world in 1913.  A classic.

U.S.D.A. Bulltein #404, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1916,
Lyster Dewey and Jason Merrill, "Hemp Hurds as Paper-Making Material." 
Discusses the manufacture of paper from the inner portion of the hemp
stalk, the xylem fibers or hurds.  Dewey and Merrill established that one
acre of hemp had the cellulose equivalent of 4.05 acres of trees on a
yearly sustainable basis.  This bulletin of 25 pages was actually printed
on paper made from hemp hurds.

The Schlichten Papers, Don Wirtschafter, 1994, Athens, Ohio.  Letters and
correspondence between George Schlichten, inventor of a new hemp fiber
decorticator, and representatives of the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain
considering the possibilities of hemp as a source for newsprint.  Includes
patent office drawings and details of this important invention from 1917. 

Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin #221, June 27, 1919, 
pp21-43, "Marketing Hemp," John R. Humphrey.  Attempts to show the American
hemp producer how to more effectively market his product so as to compete
with foreign competition.  Need for better quality and mechanization
discussed.  Illustrated.

Plant Physiology, Vol 11, 1936,  "Time Factor in Utilization of Mineral
Nutrients by Hemp,"  Sister Mary Etienne Tibeau, pp. 731-747.  A nun from
Mount Mercy College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, did extensive studies on the
proper mineral nutrients to add to hemp for maximum growth and production.

Proceedings--Soil Science Society of America, Black, C.A., Vessel. A.J.,
1944, "The Response of hemp to fertilizers in Iowa."  pp.179-184.  Shows
crop yields in Iowa during the governments emergency program to grow hemp
during World War II.  One test plot had a yield of 21.2 tons per acre. 
Nitrogen added at a rate of 100 pounds per acre increased hemp yields by
2.47 tons.  Nitrogen also increased the number of female plants.  

U.S.D.A. Bulltein #1935, Brittain B. Robinson, 1943, revised 1952, "Hemp." 
Shows farmers how to plant, grow, harvest, and ret hemp.  Given to American
farmers during World War II because our foreign sources of cordage fibers
were cut off by the Japanese.  Re-issued in 1952 during the Korean War when
it was feared that our sources of foreign fibers might be cut off by the
Communist Chinese.

Iowa Academy of Sciences, Vol. 58, 1951,  pp. 221-228, "Nutrition and
Aeration in relation to growth in Cannabis sativa,"  John R. Weber.

Botanical Gazette, "Photoperiodic Responses of Hemp,"  Vol. 116, Sept.
1954,  pp. 14-29, Borthwick, H.A., Scully, N.J.  Photoperiod investigations
were undertaken in order to improve methods of field production of hemp.

Fibres, Engineering and Chemistry,  "Monoecious hemp breeding in the United
States."1956, Vol. 17, Feaster, C.V.,  pp.339-340.  Monoecious hemp has the
advantage that all plants come to maturity at the same time.  

A History of the Hemp Industry in Kentucky, 1951, James F. Hopkins,
University of Kentucky, Lexington.  A very thorough book on hemp's history
in the number one hemp producing state.  Sen. Henry Clay was one of the
largest hemp producers in America .

America, Russia, Hemp, and Napoleon,"  Alfred Crosby, 1965, reveals how
hemp was one of the main causes of the War of 1812 when Napoleon formed an
alliance with the czar of Russia which cut off Great Britain's access to
Russian hemp.  At that time nearly all the marine hemp used in the world
came from Russia.

Pharmacological Reviews,  Vol.23, No. 4, 1971, "Chemistry of Marihuana," 
Coy Waller.  One of the first studies that clearly shows that hemp-type
marihuana grown for fiber is very low in THC, the psychoactive component
that gets people high.  The drug-type marihuana is very high in THC.  Also
the precursor agent Cannabidiol, CBD, which is not psychoactive, is very
high in fiber-type hemp but very low in drug-type.  This is important as
CBD is known to block the effects of THC.  This makes the hemp-type doubly
useless for drug effects.

Economic Botany,  29:  April-June, 1975, pp. 153-163.  "Seasonal
Fluctuations in Cannabinoid Content of Kansas Marijuana,"  R.P. Latta, and
B.J. Eaton.  Wild  'marijuana' growing in Riley County Kansas was found to
be very low in THC content.  The leaves and flowering tops averaged from
0.01-0.49% THC with a mean of 0.14% THC.  CBD which blocks the psychoactive
effects of THC was as high as 1.7% (Average marijuana seized by law
enforcement agencies is  about 3-3.5% THC.) 

Economic Botany,  29:  1975,  "The Evolution of Cannabinoid Phenotypes in
Cannabis,"  Ernest Small, H.D. Beckstead, and Allan Chan,  pp.  219-232. 
These researchers for the Canadian Department of Agriculture tested over
350 varieties of Cannabis in Ottawa, Ontario.  They determined that there
were two basic types of Cannabis based on genetic characteristics:  a
drug-type which originates in hot climates such as India and is high in THC
but low in CBD and a fiber-type hemp which originates in temperate climates
and is low in THC but high in CBD and is used industrially for fiber and
food.  This awareness of the separateness of the two types has vast
agronomic potential.  It means fiber hemp can be grown without the drug
effect of 'marijuana.'

Compte Rendu Academie Agriculture de France,  "Apercu de la Production de
Chanvre en France,"  Fournier G., Paris M.R., Paris R.R.,  Vol. 62, 1976, 
pp.  1262-1270. (French).  History and current, (1976) production of hemp
(chanvre) in France.  Reveals the unfortunate connection between hemp and
the drug Cannabis.  Shows how fiber and seed hemp grown for industrial
purposes has no psychoactive effect.  Gives current yields and shows where
hemp is grown in France.  Interestingly hemp is used as a wind-break in the
hedgerows of the Rhone River valley.  Used as fish bait.  Various uses for
hemp in specialty papers.  

World Research and Development, 1975,  "Hemp for refiner mechanical pulp," 
A. Bosia,  p. 37,41. Utilization of the whole hemp stalk, including the
hurds could make the crop more economically viable.

Recent Developments in Pulp & Papermaking,  17th EUCEPA Conference, Vienna,
Oct. 1977,  "Complete Utilization of Hemp through Alkali-Oxygen &
Chemi-Mechanical Process."   A. Bosia, and D. Nisi,  pp.  77-86.  Italy
produced half the world's hemp after World War II with 560,000 tons per
annum.  Hemp's subsequent decline caused by l) competition from synthetic
fibers, 2) no technical improvement in hemp harvesting equipment  or
machinery for the separation of the long fibres from the woody core,  3) 
limited economic use of the short fibres of the woody core which account
for 2/3 of the whole plant.  Diagram of a hemp mill that does not require a
retting process.  Compares paper made from hemp hurds with poplar wood.  

Plantes Medicinales et Phytotherapie,  "Paper-making type of hemp (Cannabis
sativa L.) cultivated in France:  Constituents (compared to those of
marijuana)."  Vol. 13 (2) April, 1979,  pp. 116-121.  Fournier & Paris
(French)  10 mg. of THC is required to get a psychoactive effect from
'marijuana.'  It would require 50-100 cigarettes of the French hemp
cultivated for paper to get a psychoactive high. 

Physiologie et Vegetale,  "Determination de chimiotypes a partir des
cannabinoides chez le Chanvre a fibres monoique, possibilities de
selection."  1980, 18 (2), pp. 349-356.  Fournier & Paris. (French) Fibre
monoecious hemp grown in France can be distinguished by two chemotypes. 
The study indicates that the plants higher in THC can be selected out of
the population.  If so the THC content can be reduced to 0.03% THC.  The
first results are encouraging.

Agronomie,  Vol. 1, 1981,  pp. 679-688.  "Les chimiotypes du chanvre. 
Interet pour un programme de selection."  Gilbert Fournier. (French)
Further advances the study to reduce THC content of French monoecious hemp,
variety Fibrimon 56, to the lowest THC possible.  Also gives a history of
the hemp industry in France and current production and uses for hemp. 
Formerly France produced over 1/2 million acres of hemp.  Today that
production is down to 25,000 acres and is mostly used for specialty papers.
 The hemp seed is used in commercial animal feeds and as bait for fish.

New Scientist,  "No marihuana:  Plenty of Hemp,"  13 November, 1980,  pp.
433-435.  Tim Malyon & Anthony Henman.  French farmers are doing well out
of the growing market for hemp fibres.  Interesting and current production
figures for the French hemp industry.  

Herba Hungarica, 1984,  Vol. 23, #1-2,  "Study on Cannabinoids Content in
Hemp...I.  Dioecious and Dioecious X Monoecious Types,"  Adzet, T., Coll,
M.R., et al  pp. 95-107. (French)  The authors from Barcelona, Spain, cross
monoecious French Fibrimon 56 hemp with dioecious Russian hemp to improve
the variety and lower the THC content.

Planta Medica,  53 (3)  June 1987.  "Identification of a New Chemotype in
Cannabis sativa:  Cannabigerol-Dominant Plants, Biogenetic and Agronomic
Prospects."  G. Fournier, et al  pp. 277-280.  Researchers at the
University of Paris and the Le Mans Hemp Institute discovered a hemp
variety practically devoid of THC... 0.001%.  It is also CBG dominant,
unique.  This discovery represents a useful understanding as well as
potential agronomic development for this plant.

Indian Journal of Textile Research, "Study of Surface Characteristics of
Hemp Fibres Using Scanning Electron Microscopy."  M. Rahman, & M.H.
Sayed-Esfahani, Vol. 4, Sept. 1979,  pp. 115-120.  The main surface
characteristics of hemp fibres subjected to different chemical treatments
have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy.  The surface
characteristics are improved...with depectinization treatments.  

Bedrijfsontwikkeling,  Vol. 13 (9)  Oct. 1982,  pp. 851-2, p.856.  W. F. du
Bois.  (Dutch) Illustrated.  "Hemp as raw material for the paper industry."

Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes,
1985,  pp. 338-345.  Kempa, E.S., Bartoszewski, K.  "Biological treatment
of flax and hempen wastewater."  How waste water from hemp and flax
processing is treated in Poland.

Progress in Biotechnology,  "Application of Enzymes in Flax and Hemp
Technology,"  Vol. 4, 1988,  pp. 483-491, Safarik, P., (A. Blazej, & J.
Zemek, editors.)  PIO Centroprojekt, Gottwaldov, Czechoslovakia. 
Pectolytic enzymes can shorten the dipping time for water retting hemp and
markedly increase the fiber quality.  This new closed system does not
contribute waste water to streams.  In fact the waste water is used to
create phytoplankton and zooplankton and fed to fish.  

Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultatis Medicae,  Vol. 122,
1989, L. Hanus, D. Subova,  pp.11-23.  "The Amount of Main Cannabinoid
Substances in Hemp, Cultivated for Industrial Fibre Production and Their
Changes in the Course of One Vegetation Period." (English)  Seasonal
changes in cannabinoid content of Czech oslovak hemp variety Rastislavice
grown industrially for fiber.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol  1990,  Vol. 41,  Zuskin, E., et al,  pp. 285-296. 
"Respiratory Symptoms and Ventilatory Capacity in Hemp workers." 
(Croatian)  This study from Zagreb, Croatia, indicates the problems
encountered by industrial hemp workers.

First European Conference on Industrial Uses of Agricultural Crops,
Maastricht, Netherlands, Nov. 1991.  "Characterisation and Processing of
Annual Crops (especially hemp) for Pulp and Paper."  Marie-Jose de Smet, 
Agrotechnical Research Institute, ATO-DLO, Wageningen, Netherlands.  Hemp
shows promise as paper because it can be used with clean methods that
overcome the serious environmental problems created by wood pulp and can
use energy efficient processes.

Pulp & Paper, July 1993, pp. 41-2.  "Hemp Variations as Pulp Source
Researched in the Netherlands." Meijer.  As a relatively
low-input crop that can be grown at a wide range of latitudes, hemp seems
very suitable for mass production of nonwood cellulose.  The main factors
which block the development of hemp as a pulp source are not botanical or
agricultural, but industrial and political considerations.

Euphytica  62:  "Characterisation of Cannabis accessions with regard to
cannabinoid content in relation to other plant characters,"  E.P.M. de
Meijer, H.J. van der Kamp and F.A. van Euwijk, 1992, pp. 187-200.  Centre
for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 
Ninety seven Cannabis accessions were evaluated.  The relationship between
chemical and other plant characters was very limited.  A selection program
will require direct analysis of cannabinoids.

Euphytica  62:  "The CPRO Cannabis germplasm collection,"  E.P.M. de Meijer
& L.J.M van Soest, 1992,  pp.201-211.  The National Hemp  Program 
investigates the feasibility of hemp as a raw material for paper pulp
production.  This requires a breeding program that seeks to improve yield,
quality and disease resistance.  

Report of a visit to the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of
Bast Crops, Gluckhov, Ukraine.  Hennink, de Meijer & van der Werf, 5-14
July, 1991, Unpublished, CPRO-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands.  Topics
covered:  Soviet hemp varieties, screening and evalution methods, genetic
research, breeding program, agronomy, harvest technology, pulp & paper

Fibre Hemp in France,  "Report of a visit to the Federation National des
Producteurs de Chanvre at Le Mans."  H.M.G. van der Werf, 30-31 July, 1992,
Centre for Agrobiological Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
(Unpublished) Topics covered include breeding, area of hemp cultivation,
rotation, soil requirements and fertilization, harvesting, processing,
prices, marketing and prospects for the future.

Journal of the Internation Hemp Association, Vol. 1 No. 1, June 1994,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.  Topics covered include Cannabis germplasm
collection in Russia, Hemp and soil pathogens, paper pulp technology in the
Netherlands and the Ukraine, UK hemp project, hemp in Tasmania, hemp vs.
poplar in the Ukraine.

Crop Physiology of Fibre Hemp,  1994, Hayo van der Werf, Wageningen, The
Netherlands.  152 p.  Topics include:  constraints to dry matter
production, quality of hemp stems as a raw material for paper, the effect
of temperature on leaf appearance and canopy establishment, effect of
daylength on yield and fiber quality, plant density and self thinning
effect on yield and quality of fiber, nitrogen fertilization effect on
yield, sex expression and size variability.  The potential of fibre hemp.

Diversity in Cannabis,  1994, Etienne de Meijer, Wageningen, The
Netherlands. 140 p.  Topics include:  The CPRO Cannabis germplasm
collection, variation of Cannabis for stem elongation and stem production,
current methods to estimate pulp yield of hemp, variation of Cannabis stem
quality for paper pulp, Cannabinoid content of fiber varieties, resistance
to soil pathogens, bast fiber percentage and total fiber yield.

Pulp & Paper International, Oct 1994,  "Hemp: Papermakers should take it
with a pinch of salt."  Manfred Judt, pp.32-3.  Hemp may be useful in the
field of specialty papers, but will face strong competition from wood pulp
and other plant fibers.

Pulp & Paper International, Nov. 1994, "Back to the future for a profitable
new industry."  Susan Riddlestone,  p. 50, 53.  Local production for local
needs based on flax and hemp--is decentralization the green way forward for
the paper industry?  Small scale pulping for local needs uses less energy
and is environmentally sound.