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Historical References
Marijuana, the First 12,000 Years

Marijuana - The First Twelve Thousand Years


1. These citizen soldiers, Alexandre Dumas later wrote, "typified the devotion, the courage, the honor of the noblest, the warmest, the purest blood of France! They embodied twenty years of struggle against all of Europe; they were of the Revolution, our mother; they were of the Empire, our nurse; they were not the French nobility, but the nobility of the French people."

2. Quoted in P. Allain, Hallucinogens et societe (Paris: Payot, 1973), p. 184.

3. M. Silvestre de Sacy, "Memoir on the Dynasty of the Assassins, and on the Origin of their Name", The History of the Assassins, edited by J. von Hammer-Purgstall (New York: Burt Franklin, 1968), p. 235.

4. J. J. Moreau, Hashish and Mental Illness (New York: Raven Press, 1973), p. 17.

5. Ibid., p. 21.

6. Quoted in L. Grinspoon, Marijuana Reconsidered (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971), p. 64.

7. Ibid.

8. T. Gautier, "The Hashish Club", The Marijuana Papers, ed. D. Solomon (New York: Signet, 1966), p. 166.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., p. 167.

11. Ibid., p. 168.

12. T. Gautier, "Charles Baudelaire", in The Works of Theophile Gautier, ed. F. C. De Sumichrast (New York: George D. Sproul, 1890), 23: 100-1.

13. Ibid., p. 101.

14. Ibid., p. 103.

15. C. Baudelaire, "The Artificial Paradise", The Marijuana Papers, ed. D. Solomon, p. 181.

16. Gautier, "Charles Baudelaire", pp. 101-2.

17. Ibid., p. 102.

18. H. Balzac, Letters to Madame Hanska (Boston: Little, Brown, 1900), p. 689.

19. P. Dimoff, "Autour d'un projet de roman de Flaubert: La Spirale", Revue d'Histoire et de Literature 48 (1948): 314.

20. Ibid.

21. Quoted in R. P. Walton, Marijuana (Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott, 1938), p. 62.

22. "The Hashish", Chamber's Edinburgh Journal, 10 (1848): 344.

23. D. Urquhart, The Pillars of Hercules, A Narrative of Travels in Spain and Morocco (London: R. Bentley, 1850), pp. 81-90.

24. "Hashish", Little's Living Age, 56 (1858): 450.

25. Ibid.

26. W. Laird-Clowes, "An Amateur Assassin", Belgravia 31 (1877): 353.

27. Ibid.

28. "Hashish", Living Age, p. 352.

29. "Confessions of a French Hasheesch Eater", Once a Week 18 (1868): 351.

30. R. C. Albutt, A System of Medicine (New York: MacMillan, 1900), 2: 903.

31. M. Longaker, Ernest Dowson (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylavania Press, 1945), pp. 42-3.

32. R. F. Burton, The Thousand Nights and a Night (Benares: Burton Ethnological Society, 1885), 3: 91.

33. W. B. Yeats, Autobiography (New York: MacMillan, 1953), p. 209.

34. K. Beckson, ed. The Memoirs of Arthur Symons (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977), p. 84.

35. T. B. Swann, Ernest Dowson (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1964), pp. 21-2.

36. Quoted in E. R. Peschel, Arthur Rimbaud. A Season in Hell, The Illuminations. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 7.

37. W. B. O'Shaugnessy, "On the Preparation of the Indian Hemp or Gunjah (Cannabis Indica): The Effects on the Animal System in Health, and Their Utility in the Treatment of Tetanus and Other Convulsive Diseases", Transactions of the Medical and Physical Society of Bombay 8 (1842): 421-61.

38. In addition to Squire, the major commercial suppliers of cannabis to Europe were the pharmacies of Smith in Edinburgh, De Courtive and Personne in Paris, and Gastinel in Cairo.

39. J. Grigor, "Indian Hemp as an Oxytocic", Monthly Journal of Medical Science 15 (1852): 124-5.

40. J. Brown, "Cannabis Indica. A Valuable Remedy in Menorrhagia", British Medical Journal, May 26, 1883, p. 1002.

41. R. Batho, "Cannabis Indica", British Medical Journal, May 26, 1883, p. 1002.

42. J. R. Reynolds, "On the Therapeutic Uses and Toxic Effects of Cannabis Indica", Lancet 1 (1890): 637-8.

43. R. P. Walton, Marijuana (Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott, 1938).